Mental and Behavioral Disorders Due to the Use of Hallucinogens

What are Mental and Behavioral Disorders Due to the Use of Hallucinogens?

It develops thanks to the psychedelic movement in modern culture.

Causes of Mental and Behavioral Disorders Due to the Use of Hallucinogens

The group includes the use of psychotomimetics such as LSD, mescaline, psilocybin, as well as phencyclidine and Ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine), which have both hallucinogenic and amphetamine effects. Used per os, as applications on the mucous membranes, in cigarettes.

Symptoms of Mental and Behavioral Disorders Due to the Use of Hallucinogens

Acute intoxication

Uncontrolled laughter, crying, mood changes, formal disturbances in thinking, euphoria, synesthesia, depersonalization and derealization. Phencyclidine intoxication resembles amphetamine.

Harmful use

Somatic symptoms include tachycardia, increased blood pressure, mydriasis, sweating, fever, nausea, dizziness, and psychopathological symptoms include mental dullness and depression.

Addiction syndrome

Mostly mental addiction.

Withdrawal syndrome

Mood change. There is no pronounced withdrawal syndrome.

Psychotic disorder

Schizophrenia-like disorder with symptoms of depersonalization and derealization, panic attacks, distorted perception of time, visual and auditory pseudo-and true hallucinations, stereotyped repetition of visual images, ideas of exposure. Delusions of attitude, meaning and harassment.

Amnestic syndrome

Not very pronounced.

Residual wealth and psychotic disorder with delayed debut

Mental dullness and the re-emergence of visual or depersonalization images.

Diagnosis of Mental and Behavioral Disorders Due to the Use of Hallucinogens

Based on the history and description of the clinic of intoxication.

Differential diagnosis

Differentiate with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder and alcohol delirium, organic narcolepsy based on follow-up observation, history data.

Treating Mental and Behavioral Disorders Due to the Use of Hallucinogens

Prescription of benzodiazepines and barbiturates, detoxification and increased excretion of psychoactive substances.

Premature Ejaculation

Causes of Premature Ejaculation

Psychogenic reasons. Possible occurrence with prolonged abstinence, anxiety, pain. It is included in the syndrome of the paracentral lobe, in which, in addition to premature ejaculation, enuresis in childhood and a decrease in Achilles reflexes are present.

Symptoms of Premature Ejaculation

With a good and satisfactory erection, ejaculation occurs in severe cases before the introduction of the penis into the vagina; in milder versions, the patient indicates a short period from the introduction of the penis to ejaculation, which does not allow the second partner to be satisfied.

Diagnosis of Premature Ejaculation

Inability to delay ejaculation for the period necessary to satisfy both partners of sexual intercourse.

Differential diagnosis

It should be differentiated from organic, including urological, causes of the disorder.

Treating Premature Ejaculation

Reflexology, psychotherapy, harmonization of a couple’s relationship.

Post-traumatic Disorder

What is Post Traumatic Disorder?

Post-traumatic disorders are disorders that occur during an extremely severe stressful life event or a significant change in life, leading to persisting unpleasant circumstances, resulting in an adaptation disorder. An important point is the relative nature of the trauma, that is, it is important to consider individual, often particular vulnerability

Causes of Post Traumatic Disorder

It develops in people who have experienced emotional or physical stress (military operations, disasters, bandit attacks, rape, house fire).

Symptoms of Post-Traumatic Disorder

The experience of injury again and again in a dream, thoughts and waking state, while in the imagination the picture of the injury can be objective and lively. Characterized by emotional deafness to all other experiences in life, including relationships with other people, concomitant symptoms in the form of vegetative lability, depression and cognitive impairment. Lack of pleasure from life and its manifestations (anhedonia).

Children and old people suffer harder stress. The duration of the disorder is more than 1 month.

Treatment for Post Traumatic Disorder

Antidepressants, sleeping pills, if necessary antipsychotics. Group and family psychotherapy.

Pathological Addiction to Gambling (Human Addiction)

Causes of Pathological Addiction to Gambling (Human Addiction)

Unknown. Increases during stress and is compulsive.

Symptoms of a Pathological Addiction to Gambling (Human Addiction)

Frequent repeated episodes of participation in gambling, leading to a decrease in professional, material and family values. Patients risk their work, make big debts, break the law in order to raise money or to avoid paying debts. Pathological addiction to computer games with a symbolic win. Lyudomania often, although not always, contributes to the formation of a dependent personality disorder, which is characterized by redirecting most of the problems to the object of the game or person, subordinating their needs to the game or dominant personality, and the formation of mental dependence. In loneliness or outside the game, addicted individuals have a feeling of helplessness and fear of an independent decision, as well as a fear of being abandoned, no free decisions can be made. With lyudomania, a pathological propensity for gambling, vivid violent ideas about the game are described, which take possession of the person especially at the time of stress. As a result of long-term (more than 7 hours a day) work at the computer, a special professional behavior modification and a peculiar coloration of neurosis and psychosis arise. Professional modification of behavior, in particular, is expressed in simplifying speech turns, looking over the interlocutor’s head, automatic gestures resembling typing on the dashboard before falling asleep and waking up, hypnagogic computer images when falling asleep, changing the structure of communication and dreams. In case of sudden problems (erasing information, computer failure), the so-called “absence” effects are revealed, which are expressed in psychogenic freezing in front of the screen, confusion and asthenia, and sometimes anxiety and restless fussiness.

Treatment of Pathological Addiction to Gambling (Human Addiction)

Neuro-linguistic programming, transactional analysis, computer psychotherapy.