What is Inorganic Enuresis?
It is characterized by involuntary urination during the day and / or night, which does not correspond to the child’s mental age. Not due to the lack of control over the function of the bladder due to neurological disorders, epileptic seizures, structural abnormalities of the urinary tract.
Causes of Inorganic Enuresis
Bladder control develops gradually, it is influenced by features of the neuromuscular system, cognitive functions, and, possibly, genetic factors. Violations of one of these components may contribute to the development of enuresis. Children suffering from enuresis are approximately twice as likely to have developmental delays. 75% of children with inorganic enuresis have close relatives suffering from enuresis, which confirms the role of genetic factors. Most children suffering from enuresis have an anatomically normal bladder, but it is functionally small. Psychological stress can increase enuresis. A big role is played by the birth of a sibling, the beginning of schooling, the breakup of a family, and the transfer to a new place of residence.
Enuresis affects more men than women, at any age. The disease occurs in 7% of boys and 3% of girls aged 5 years, 3% of boys and 2% of girls aged 10 and 1% of boys and is almost completely absent in girls aged 18 years. Daytime enuresis is less common than nocturnal, in about 2% of 5-year-olds. Unlike nocturnal, daytime enuresis occurs more often in girls. Mental disorders are present only in 20% of children with inorganic enuresis, most often they occur in girls or in children with day and night enuresis. In recent years, descriptions of rare forms of epilepsy appear more and more often in the literature: an epileptic variant of enuresis in children (5-12 years old).
Symptoms of Inorganic Enuresis
Inorganic enuresis can be observed from birth – “primary” (80%), or occur after a period of more than 1 year, acquired bladder control – “secondary”. Late onset is usually observed at the age of 5-7 years. Enuresis can be monosymptomatic or combined with other emotional or behavioral disorders, and is the primary diagnosis if involuntary urination is observed several times a week, or if other symptoms show a temporary connection with enuresis. Enuresis is not associated with any particular sleep phase or night time, more often it is observed in a random order. Sometimes it occurs when it is difficult to go from a slow phase of sleep to a fast one. Emotional and social problems that arise as a result of enuresis include low self-esteem, a sense of inferiority, social constraints, stiffness and family conflicts.
Diagnosis of Inorganic Enuresis
The minimum chronological age for diagnosis should be 5 years, and the minimum mental age should be 4 years.
- Involuntary or arbitrary urination in bed or clothing can be observed during the day (F98.0) or overnight (F98.01) or observed during the night and day (F98.02).
- At least two episodes per month for children aged 5-6 years and one event per month for older children.
- The disorder is not associated with a physical illness (diabetes, urinary tract infections, seizures, mental retardation, schizophrenia and other mental illnesses).
- The duration of the disorder is at least 3 months.
It is necessary to exclude the possible organic causes of enuresis. Organic factors are most often found in children who have daytime and nocturnal enuresis, combined with frequent urination and an urgent need to empty the bladder. They include: 1) disorders of the genitourinary system – structural, neurological, infectious (uropathy, cystitis, hidden spina bifida, etc.); 2) organic disorders causing polyuria – diabetes mellitus or diabetes insipidus; 3) disorders of consciousness and sleep (intoxication, somnambulism, epileptic seizures), 4) side effects of treatment with certain antipsychotic drugs (thioridazine, etc.).
Treatment of Inorganic Enuresis
Due to the etiology of the disorder, various methods are used in treatment.
Hygiene requirements include training in using the toilet, limiting fluid intake 2 hours before bedtime, and sometimes a night waking to use the toilet.
Behavioral therapy. In the classic version – conditioning by a signal (bell, beep) the time of the onset of involuntary urination. The effect is observed in more than 50% of cases. This therapy uses hardware methods. It is reasonable to combine this treatment option with praise or reward for longer periods of abstinence.
The use of Melipramine is recommended. Against the background of its administration, in 30% of patients, enuresis completely stops, and in 85% it weakens.
However, the effect is not always lasting. There are reports of the effectiveness of the use of Driptan (the active substance is oxybutrin), which has a direct antispasmodic effect on the bladder and a peripheral M-cholinolytic effect with a decrease in the hypertonus of the parasympathetic nervous system. Doses 5 – 25 mg / day.
Traditional variants of psychotherapy for enuresis in some cases are not effective.